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    CCIE R&S 350-001 Q&As – Implement IPv6 (1-5)

    By admin | June 18, 2014

    Tagged with:

    Section 2 – Implement IPv6

    QUESTION 1
    Which of these statements best describes the major difference between an IPv4-compatible tunnel and a 6to4 tunnel?
    A.    An IPv4-compatible tunnel is a static tunnel, but an 6to4 tunnel is a semiautomatic tunnel.
    B.    The deployment of a IPv4-compatible tunnel requires a special code on the edge routers, but a 6to4 tunnel does not require any special code.
    C.    An IPv4-compatible tunnel is typically used only between two IPv6 domains, but a 6to4 tunnel is used to connect to connect two or more IPv6 domains.
    D.    For an IPv4-compatible tunnel, the ISP assigns only IPv4 addresses for each domain, but for a 6to4 tunnel, the ISP assigns only IPv6 addresses for each domain.
    Answer: C

    Explanation:

    Automatic 6to4 Tunnels

    An automatic 6to4 tunnel allows isolated IPv6 domains to be connected over an IPv4 network to remote IPv6 networks. The key difference between automatic 6to4 tunnels and manually configured tunnels is that the tunnel is not point-to-point; it is point-to-multipoint. In automatic 6to4 tunnels, routers are not configured in pairs because they treat the IPv4 infrastructure as a virtual nonbroadcast multiaccess (NBMA) link. The IPv4 address embedded in the IPv6 address is used to find the other end of the automatic tunnel.
    An automatic 6to4 tunnel may be configured on a border router in an isolated IPv6 network, which creates a tunnel on a per-packet basis to a border router in another IPv6 network over an IPv4 infrastructure. The tunnel destination is determined by the IPv4 address of the border router extracted from the IPv6 address that starts with the prefix 2002::/16, where the format is 2002:border-router-IPv4-address::/48. Following the embedded IPv4 address are 16 bits that can be used to number networks within the site. The border router at each end of a 6to4 tunnel must support both the IPv4 and IPv6 protocol stacks. 6to4 tunnels are configured between border routers or between a border router and a host.
    The simplest deployment scenario for 6to4 tunnels is to interconnect multiple IPv6 sites, each of which has at least one connection to a shared IPv4 network. This IPv4 network could be the global Internet or a corporate backbone. The key requirement is that each site have a globally unique IPv4 address; the Cisco IOS software uses this address to construct a globally unique 6to4/48 IPv6 prefix. As with other tunnel mechanisms, appropriate entries in a Domain Name System (DNS) that map between hostnames and IP addresses for both IPv4 and IPv6 allow the applications to choose the required address.

    Automatic IPv4-Compatible IPv6 Tunnels

    Automatic IPv4-compatible tunnels use IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses. IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses are IPv6 unicast addresses that have zeros in the high-order 96 bits of the address, and an IPv4 address in the low-order 32 bits. They can be written as 0:0:0:0:0:0:A.B.C.D or ::A.B.C.D, where “A.B.C.D” represents the embedded IPv4 address.
    The tunnel destination is automatically determined by the IPv4 address in the low-order 32 bits of IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses. The host or router at each end of an IPv4-compatible tunnel must support both the IPv4 and IPv6 protocol stacks. IPv4-compatible tunnels can be configured between border-routers or between a border-router and a host. Using IPv4-compatible tunnels is an easy method to create tunnels for IPv6 over IPv4, but the technique does not scale for large networks.

    QUESTION 2
    Which information is carried in an OSPFv3 intra-area-prefix LSA?
    A.    IPv6 prefixes
    B.    link-local addresses
    C.    solicited node multicast addresses
    D.    IPv6 prefixes and topology information
    Answer: A
    Explanation:
    OSPFv3 LSA Types
    LSA                                      Name LS Type code        Flooding scope              LSA Function code
    Router LSA                          0×2001                            Area scope                   1
    Network LSA                       0×2002                            Area scope                   2
    Inter-Area-Prefix-LSA          0×2003                            Area scope                   3
    Inter-Area-Router-LSA        0×2004                            Area scope                   4
    AS-External-LSA                  0×4005                            AS scope                      5
    Group-membership-LSA      0×2006                            Area scope                   6
    Type-7-LSA                         0×2007                            Area scope                   7
    Link-LSA                             0×0008                            Link-local scope           8
    Intra-Area-Prefix-LSA         0×2009                            Area scope                   9

    QUESTION 3
    Which IPv6 address would you ping to determine if OSPFv3 is able to send and receive unicast packets across a link?
    A.    anycast address
    B.    site-local multicast
    C.    global address of the link
    D.    unique local address
    E.    link-local address
    Answer: E
    Explanation:
    A link-local address is an Internet Protocol address that is intended only for communications within the segment of a local network (a link) or a point-to-point connection that a host is connected to. Routers do not forward packets with link-local addresses.

    QUESTION 4
    During the IPv6 address resolution, a node sends a neighbor solicitation message in order to discover which of these?
    A.    The Layer 2 multicast address of the destination node
    B.    The solicited node multicast address of the destination node
    C.    The Layer 2 address of the destination node based on the destination IPv6 address
    D.    The IPv6 address of the destination node based on the destination Layer 2 address
    Answer: C
    Explanation:
    Nodes send Neighbor Solicitations to request the link-layer address of a target node while also providing their own link-layer address to the target. Neighbor Solicitations are multicast when the node needs to resolve an address and unicast when the node seeks to verify the reachability of a neighbor.

    QUESTION 5
    Your company is researching a new application that runs over IPv6, but part of it must still have IPv4 support. Your company uses a traditional IPv4 network. Your plan is not to run IPv6 over the whole network, but to segment parts of the network or even to operate simultaneously with IPv6 and IPv4. You must make a brief presentation about IPv6 technology to the board of technical directors. Which three of these items could be part of your presentation? (Choose three.)
    A.    Tunnel IPv6 over IPv4 to connect far-end IPv6 networks.
    B.    Explain why configuring IPv4 and IPv6 at the same time over the same LAN interface is not possible.
    C.    Explain why configuring IPv4 and IPv6 at the same time over the same LAN interface is possible.
    D.    What is the meaning of EUI-64 and how does it work?
    E.    Tunnel IPv4 over IPv6 to connect far-end IPv4 networks.
    Answer: ACD
    Explanation:
    An interface ID is used to identify interfaces on a link. The interface ID must be unique to the link. It may also be unique over a broader scope. In many cases, an interface ID will be the same as or based on the link-layer address of an interface. Interface IDs used in aggregatable global unicast and other IPv6 address types must be 64 bits long and constructed in the modified EUI-64 format.
    Interface IDs are constructed in the modified EUI-64 format in one of the following ways:
    – For all IEEE 802 interface types (for example, Ethernet, and FDDI interfaces), the first three octets (24 bits) are taken from the Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI) of the 48-bit link-layer address (the Media Access Control [MAC] address) of the interface, the fourth and fifth octets (16 bits) are a fixed hexadecimal value of FFFE, and the last three octets (24 bits) are taken from the last three octets of the MAC address. The construction of the interface ID is completed by setting the Universal/Local (U/L) bit—the seventh bit of the first octet—to a value of 0 or 1. A value of 0 indicates a locally administered identifier; a value of 1 indicates a globally unique IPv6 interface identifier.
    – For other interface types (for example, serial, loopback, ATM, Frame Relay, and tunnel interface types—except tunnel interfaces used with IPv6 overlay tunnels), the interface ID is constructed in the same way as the interface ID for IEEE 802 interface types; however, the first MAC address from the pool of MAC addresses in the router is used to construct the identifier (because the interface does not have a MAC address).
    – For tunnel interface types that are used with IPv6 overlay tunnels, the interface ID is the IPv4 address assigned to the tunnel interface with all zeros in the high-order 32 bits of the identifier.
    An IPv4-compatible IPv6 address is an IPv6 unicast address that has zeros in the high-order 96 bits of the address and an IPv4 address in the low-order 32 bits of the address. The format of an IPv4-compatible IPv6 address is 0:0:0:0:0:0:A.B.C.D or ::A.B.C.D. The entire 128-bit IPv4-compatible IPv6 address is used as the IPv6 address of a node and the IPv4 address embedded in the low-order 32 bits is used as the IPv4 address of the node. IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses are assigned to nodes that support both the IPv4 and IPv6 protocol stacks and are used in automatic tunnels.

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