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    CCIE R&S 350-001 Q&As – Implement IPv4 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) (6-10)

    By admin | June 18, 2014

    Tagged with:

    Section 5 – Implement IPv4 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)

    QUESTION 6
    Refer to the exhibit. How would you get the 1.1.1.1 network into the OSPF database?

    clip_image001

    A.    Configure RTA as an ASBR.
    B.    Redistribute connected routes on RTA into OSPF.
    C.    Set up a virtual link between area 1 and area 0.
    D.    Set up a virtual link between area 1 and area 2.
    E.    Add a static route into RTB and enter it into OSPF.
    F.    Place a network 1.1.1.0 0.0.0.0 command into RTB.
    G.    Set up a unique router ID on RTA using an RFC 1918 address.
    H.    Change area 0 on RTB to area 1
    Answer: C

    QUESTION 7
    The core of a network has four routers connected in a square design with Gigabit Ethernet links using /30 subnets. The network is used to carry voice traffic and other applications. Convergence time is taking more than expected. Which three actions would you take to improve OSPF convergence time? (Choose three.)
    A.    Increase MTU of the interfaces to accommodate larger OSPF packets.
    B.    Change the network type to point-to-point on those links.
    C.    Reduce SPF initial timer.
    D.    Increase hello interval to avoid adjacency flapping.
    E.    Enable OSPF.
    Answer: BCE
    Explanation:
    Point-to-point means no DR election
    convergence time for a link-state protocol is sum of the following components:
    Time to detect the network failure, e.g. interface down condition.
    Time to propagate the event, i.e. flood the LSA across the topology.
    Time to perform SPF calculations on all routers upon reception of the new information.
    Time to update the forwarding tables for all routers in the area.
    The OSPF Shortest Path First Throttling feature makes it possible to configure SPF scheduling in millisecond intervals and to potentially delay shortest path first (SPF) calculations during network instability. SPF is scheduled to calculate the Shortest Path Tree (SPT) when there is a change in topology. One SPF run may include multiple topology change events.
    The interval at which the SPF calculations occur is chosen dynamically and is based on the frequency of topology changes in the network. The chosen interval is within the boundary of the user-specified value ranges. If network topology is unstable, SPF throttling calculates SPF scheduling intervals to be longer until topology becomes stable.

    QUESTION 8
    Refer to exhibits 1 and 2. A company uses a Metro Ethernet (Gigabit Ethernet) dedicated circuit to communicate between users (subnet B) and servers (subnet A) as shown in Exhibit 1. Both routers use OSPF to advertise the subnets. During a weekly management meeting, they realize that the WAN link is oversize. They have been using only 2 Mb/s in the worst-case scenario. So they propose a new, cheaper WAN connection using a 2-Mb/s Frame-Relay point-to-point link to interconnect both sites (Exhibit 2). The Frame Relay service provider informs them that multicast traffic is not allowed to run over the service provider network. Which one of these options is best to enable the company to establish the OSPF neighbor adjacency?

    clip_image002
    A.    Use OSPF network broadcast, because it uses unicast to establish a neighbor relationship.
    B.    Use OSPF network point-to-multipoint, because it uses unicast to establish a neighbor relationship.
    C.    Use OSPF network point-to-point, because it uses unicast to establish a neighbor relationship.
    D.    Use OSPF network point-to-multipoint nonbroadcast, because it establishes a neighbor relationship using unicast packets.
    E.    Use OSPF network nonbroadcast, because it establishes a neighbor relationship using multicast.
    Answer: D

    QUESTION 9
    You use OSPF as your network routing protocol. You use the command show ip route and you see several routes described as O, O IA, O E1, and O E2. What routes are in your area?
    A.    O IA
    B.    O E1
    C.    O E2
    D.    O
    Answer: D
    Explanation:
    Depending on the point where a network is sourced, there are various types of routes that could be present in a OSPF domain.
    When there are multiple routes to a particular network in a OSPF domain, the type of the route influences the route that is selected and installed by the router in the routing table.
    In OSPF, routes that are learned by a router from OSPF sources within the same area are known as inta-area routes.
    Routes that originate from an OSPF router in a different area are considered as inter-area routes.
    Certain networks could belong to a domain outside OSPF, which could then be redistributed into the OSPF by an Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR).
    Such routes are considered external routes.
    They can be further divided into external type-1 or external type-2 routes, depending on how they are advertised while being redistributing on the ASBR.
    The difference between these two types is the way in which the metric for the route is calculated.
    OSPF-running routers use these criteria to select the best route to be installed in the routing table:
    1. Intra-area routes.
    2. Inter-area routes.
    3. External Type-1 routes.
    4. External Type-2 routes.
    B) If there are multiple routes to a network with the same route type, the OSPF metric calculated as cost based on the bandwidth is used for selecting the best route.
    The route with the lowest value for cost is chosen as the best route.
    C) If there are multiple routes to a network with the same route type and cost, it chooses all the routes to be installed in the routing table, and the router does equal cost load balancing across multiple paths.

    QUESTION 10
    Area Border Router (ABR) is a router located on the border of one or more OSPF areas that connect those areas to the backbone network. An ABR will inject a default route into which two types of areas? (Choose two.)
    A.    Area 0
    B.    NSSA
    C.    Totally stubby
    D.    Stub
    Answer: CD
    Explanation:
    Totally Stub Areas: These areas do not allow routes other than intra-area and the default routes to be propagated within the area. The ABR injects a default route into the area and all the routers belonging to this area use the default route to send any traffic outside the area.
    Stub Areas: These areas do not accept routes belonging to external autonomous systems (AS); however, these areas have inter-area and intra-area routes. In order to reach the outside networks, the routers in the stub area use a default route which is injected into the area by the Area Border Router (ABR). A stub area is typically configured in situations where the branch office need not know about all the routes to every other office, instead it could use a default route to the central office and get to other places from there. Hence the memory requirements of the leaf node routers is reduced, and so is the size of the OSPF database.

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