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    CCIE R&S 350-001 Q&As – Implement IPv4 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) (1-5)

    By admin | June 18, 2014

    Tagged with:

    Section 5 – Implement IPv4 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)

    QUESTION 1
    Which one of these statements is true of OSPF type 5 LSAs?
    A.    They are used to summarize area routes to other areas.
    B.    They are used in not-so-stubby areas to propagate external routes.
    C.    They are used to notify areas of the ASBR.
    D.    They are flooded to all areas except stub areas (external route).
    Answer: D

    Explanation:
    Type 5 external link LSAs are used to advertise external routes originated from an ASBR. They are flooded through the whole OSPF domain.
    (Note: The dashed arrows show the directions of LSAs in this example)
    Below is a summary of OSPF Link-state advertisements (LSAs)

    clip_image001
    Router link LSA (Type 1) – Each router generates a Type 1 LSA that lists its neighbors and the cost to each. LSA Type 1 is only flooded inside the router’s area, does not cross ABR.
    Network link LSA (Type 2) – is sent out by the designated router (DR) and lists all the routers on the segment it is adjacent to. Types 2 are ?ooded within its area only; does not cross ABR.
                                                Type 1 & type 2 are the basis of SPF path selection.
    Summary link LSA (Type 3) – ABRs generate this LSA to send between areas (so type 3 is called inter-area link). It lists the networks inside other areas but still belonging to the autonomous system and aggregates routes.
                                                   Summary links are injected by the ABR from the backbone into other areas and from other areas into the backbone.
    Summary LSA (Type 4) – Generated by the ABR to describe routes to ASBRs. In the above example, the only ASBR belongs to area 0 so the two ABRs send LSA Type 4 to area 1 & area 2 (not vice versa).
                                            This is an indication of the existence of the ASBR in area 0. Note: Type 4 LSAs contain the router ID of the ASBR.
    External Link LSA (LSA 5) – Generated by ASBR to describe routes redistributed into the area (which means networks from other autonomous systems). These routes appear as E1 or E2 in the routing table.
                                                 E2 (default) uses a static cost throughout the OSPF domain as it only takes the cost into account that is reported at redistribution. E1 uses a cumulative cost of the cost reported into the
                                                 OSPF domain at redistribution plus the local cost to the ASBR. Type 5 LSAs flood throughout the entire autonomous system but notice that Stubby Area and Totally Stubby Area do not accept Type 5.
    Multicast LSA (Type 6) are specialized LSAs that are used in multicast OSPF applications.
    NSSA External LSA (Type 7) – Generated by an ASBR inside a NSSA to describe routes redistributed into the NSSA. LSA 7 is translated into LSA 5 as it leaves the NSSA.
                                                    These routes appear as N1 or N2 in the ip routing table inside the NSSA. Much like LSA 5, N2 is a static cost while N1 is a cumulative cost that includes the cost upto the ASBR
    Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_white_paper09186a0080094e9e.shtml#appa1

    QUESTION 2
    Which OSPF LSA type does an ASBR use to originate a default route into an area?
    A.    LSA 1
    B.    LSA 3
    C.    LSA 4
    D.    LSA 5
    E.    LSA 7
    Answer: D
    Explanation:
    Type 5 external link LSAs are used to advertise external routes originated from an ASBR. They are flooded through the whole OSPF domain.
    (Note: The dashed arrows show the directions of LSAs in this example)
    Below is a summary of OSPF Link-state advertisements (LSAs)

    clip_image001[1]
    Router link LSA (Type 1) – Each router generates a Type 1 LSA that lists its neighbors and the cost to each. LSA Type 1 is only flooded inside the router’s area, does not cross ABR.
    Network link LSA (Type 2) – is sent out by the designated router (DR) and lists all the routers on the segment it is adjacent to. Types 2 are ?ooded within its area only; does not cross ABR.
                                                Type 1 & type 2 are the basis of SPF path selection.
    Summary link LSA (Type 3) – ABRs generate this LSA to send between areas (so type 3 is called inter-area link). It lists the networks inside other areas but still belonging to the autonomous system and aggregates routes.
                                                   Summary links are injected by the ABR from the backbone into other areas and from other areas into the backbone.
    Summary LSA (Type 4) – Generated by the ABR to describe routes to ASBRs. In the above example, the only ASBR belongs to area 0 so the two ABRs send LSA Type 4 to area 1 & area 2 (not vice versa).
                                            This is an indication of the existence of the ASBR in area 0. Note: Type 4 LSAs contain the router ID of the ASBR.
    External Link LSA (LSA 5) – Generated by ASBR to describe routes redistributed into the area (which means networks from other autonomous systems). These routes appear as E1 or E2 in the routing table.
                                                 E2 (default) uses a static cost throughout the OSPF domain as it only takes the cost into account that is reported at redistribution. E1 uses a cumulative cost of the cost reported into the
                                                 OSPF domain at redistribution plus the local cost to the ASBR. Type 5 LSAs flood throughout the entire autonomous system but notice that Stubby Area and Totally Stubby Area do not accept Type 5.
    Multicast LSA (Type 6) are specialized LSAs that are used in multicast OSPF applications.
    NSSA External LSA (Type 7) – Generated by an ASBR inside a NSSA to describe routes redistributed into the NSSA. LSA 7 is translated into LSA 5 as it leaves the NSSA.
                                                    These routes appear as N1 or N2 in the ip routing table inside the NSSA. Much like LSA 5, N2 is a static cost while N1 is a cumulative cost that includes the cost upto the ASBR
    Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_white_paper09186a0080094e9e.shtml#appa1

    QUESTION 3
    Refer to the exhibit. Routers A and B are directly connected and running EIGRP, but they are unable to form a neighbor relationship. What is the most likely cause?

    clip_image002
    A.    The network statements are misconfigured.
    B.    The IP address statements are misconfigured.
    C.    The autonomous system is misconfigured.
    D.    There is a physical issue with the cable.
    Answer: B
    Explanation:
    To form neighbor relationship in EIGRP, these conditions must be met:
    * Pass the authentication process
    * Have the same con?gured AS number
    * Must believe that the source IP address of a received Hello is in that router’s primary connected subnet on that interface
    * Match K values
    The third item means that the primary ip address of the neighbor must be in the same subnet with the primary ip address of the received interface. But in this case the primary ip address of router A is 10.10.10.1/30 and it is not in the same subnet with the primary ip address of router B 10.10.10.6/30 -> no EIGRP neighbor relationship is formed.

    QUESTION 4
    Refer to the exhibit. Routers A and B are directly connected and running OSPF, but they are unable to form a neighbor relationship. What is the most likely cause?

    clip_image003
    A.    The routers are not on the same network.
    B.    The network statements do not match.
    C.    The process number does not match.
    D.    The MTU does not match.
    E.    The OSPF cost does not match.
    F.    There is a physical issue with the cable.
    Answer: D

    QUESTION 5
    Which two of these steps are minimum requirements to configure OSPFv3 under IPv6? (Choose two.)
    A.    Configure a routing process using the command ipv6 router ospf [process-id].
    B.    Add the network statement for the interfaces on which OSPF will run.
    C.    Configure OSPF on the interface that it will run on.
    D.    Use the passive-interface command on the interfaces on which OSPF should not run.
    E.    Enable routing.
    Answer: CE

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